This compilation is an attempt at an organized directory of all the published and available clinically relevant studies on mistletoe use for the treatment of cancer. I have not attempted to dismiss any negative study. I have made comments where the title is not self-explanatory and in some of the more important studies I have quoted from the results or conclusions. I have included case series and case reports. I have not included all bench trials but have included some I felt noteworthy. Several studies have been left out that were not reviews and did not focus on a particular cancer type.
My database was pubmed and search terms were “viscum album cancer” and “mistletoe cancer”.
Updated October 3, 2018
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis
“The quality of the studies was satisfactory and the majority reported positive outcomes. Nevertheless, there is a great deal of methodological heterogeneity among the studies, which precludes conclusive comparisons. Based on these results, the present authors strongly suggest developing guidelines for reporting in vivo mistletoe cancer treatment experiments.”
A qualitative review: “Patients reported demonstrable changes to their physical, emotional, and psychosocial well-being following MT, as well as a reduction in chemotherapy side effects” “Given the variation in context of MT delivery across the articles, it is not possible to ascribe changes in patients’ quality of life specifically to MT.”
Based our literature search, Allium sativum, camptothecin, curcumin, green tea, Panax ginseng, resveratrol, Rhus verniciflua and Viscum album had satisfactory instances of clinical evidence for supporting their anticancer effects.
Important systematic review of safety of mistletoe therapy. “Application of higher dosages of VAE or ML is not accompanied by immunosuppression; altogether VAE seems to exhibit low risk but should be monitored by clinicians when applied in high dosages.”
“VAEs seem to have an impact on QoL and reduction of side effects of conventional therapies (chemotherapy, radiation) in experimental trials as well as in routine daily application. The influence on fatigue especially should be investigated further.”
“Pooled analysis of clinical studies suggests that adjuvant treatment of cancer patients with the mistletoe extract Iscador is associated with a better survival. Despite obvious limitations, and strong hints for a publication bias which limits the evidence found in this meta-analysis, one can not ignore the fact that studies with positive effects of VA-E on survival of cancer patients are accumulating. “
“Supportive ‘mistletoe therapy’ seems safe and beneficial for QoL in adult patients with solid tumours”
“19 randomized (RCT), 16 non-randomized (non-RCT) controlled studies, and 11 single-arm cohort studies were identified that investigated VAE treatment of breast or gynaecological cancer. They included 2420, 6399 and 1130 patients respectively. 8 RCTs and 8 non-RCTs were embedded in the same large epidemiological cohort study. 9 RCTs and 13 non-RCTs assessed survival; 12 reported a statistically significant benefit, the others either a trend or no difference. 3 RCTs and 6 non-RCTs assessed tumour behaviour (remission or time to relapse); 3 reported statistically significant benefit, the others either a trend, no difference or mixed results. Quality of life (QoL) and tolerability of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery was assessed in 15 RCTs and 9 non-RCTs. 21 reported a statistically significant positive result, the others either a trend, no difference, or mixed results. Methodological quality of the studies differed substantially; some had major limitations, especially RCTs on survival and tumour behaviour had very small sample sizes. Some recent studies, however, especially on QoL were reasonably well conducted. Single-arm cohort studies investigated tumour behaviour, QoL, pharmacokinetics and safety of VAE. Tumour remission was observed after high dosage and local application. VAE application was well tolerated. 34 animal experiments investigated VAE and isolated or recombinant compounds in various breast and gynaecological cancer models in mice and rats. VAE showed increase of survival and tumour remission especially in mice, while application in rats as well as application of VAE compounds had mixed results. In vitro VAE and its compounds have strong cytotoxic effects on cancer cells.
VAE shows some positive effects in breast and gynaecological cancer. More research into clinical efficacy is warranted.”
PDQ US Government Review of Mistletoe
Positive survival noted but difficulty with data/methodology also noted.
Positive effect on quality of life.
Cochrane review. “The evidence from RCTs to support the view that the application of mistletoe extracts has impact on survival or leads to an improved ability to fight cancer or to withstand anticancer treatments is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that mistletoe extracts may offer benefits on measures of QOL during chemotherapy for breast cancer, but these results need replication.”
Written by a biased researcher (Edzard Ernst), this review in my opinion shows how not to do a systemic review more than it shows anything conclusive. There have been numerous critiques of this review. “Rigorous trials of mistletoe extracts fail to demonstrate efficacy of this therapy.”
“Among 23 identified studies evaluated for clinically relevant outcome measures, 12 studies showed one or more statistically significant, positive results, another 7 studies showed at least one positive trend, 3 showed no effect and 1 had a negative trend. All studies, however, suffered from methodological shortcomings to some degree, and many of the studies are not conclusive. As several reasonably well conducted studies indicate beneficial effects, further properly designed trials should be encouraged.”
Safety and Interactions
The results of this study indicate that mistletoe therapy is safe. ADRs were mostly mild to moderate in intensity and appear to be dose-related and explained by the immune-stimulating, pharmacological activity of mistletoe.
“VAE (mistletoe) did not inhibit chemotherapy induced cytostasis and cytotoxicity in any of our experimental settings. At higher concentrations VAE showed an additive inhibitory effect.”
Anaphylaxis is rare but possible. A case report.
3 cases of anaphylaxis. Case series.
Subcutaneous mistletoe use safe. Significant impact on quality of life and less chemotherapy side effects. No observed impact on recurrence noted- mistletoe again only used during chemotherapy in this trial.
No induction of pro inflammatory CRP or IL-6 in healthy volunteers with subcutaneous dosing.
Quality of Life
“patients experienced an improvement of QoL during MT. This therapy seemed to offer a platform for an integrative coping with the disease, which might be important in reconciling the perceived shock of an existential illness with a good QoL.”
A review noting evidence for increased quality of life with mistletoe in breast cancer. Not conclusive about protection from toxicity.
Improved quality of life demonstrated.
Iscador Qu used with conventional treatment extended mouse survival in glioma.
An important review of benchside and mouse models of mistletoe and glioma treatment.
Rat study showing positive effect of mistletoe in glioma.
Young boy used Iscador and Helleborus without conventional treatment and had complete remission of diffuse pontine glioma. Abstract does not mention therapies but paper available at this link:
Appears safe, effectiveness needs more studies.
Mistletoe doubled survival in treatment group.
A case series for pediatric use of intravenous high dose mistletoe. Paywall
Positive effects on survival in stage 4 Lung cancer in patients using mistletoe. Median survival was 17.0 months in the CTx plus VA group (95%CI: 11.0–40.0) and was 8.0 months (95%CI: 7.0–11.0) in the CTx only group (χ2 = 7.2, p = .007).
Long 5+ year survival in a patient with small cell lung cancer treated with subcutaneous iscador (no chemotherapy).
Only effect noted in this trial was that mistletoe group tolerated more chemotherapy.
Positive findings of prolonged survival.
Use of mistletoe in pleurodesis. Paywall
Mistletoe safe and effective for malignant pleural effusion.
Mistletoe safe and effective for pleurodesis.
Mistletoe twice as effective as Bleomycin for malignant pleural effusion.
Targeted Therapy (monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs),and immunotherapy) and Mistletoe
Addition of mistletoe to targeted therapy studied in a multicenter observational study. . Addition of VA to targeted therapy significantly reduced the probability of oncological treatment discontinuation by 70%.
Monoclonal antibody treatment reactions occurred 1/5th as often in patients concurrently using mistletoe.
This study showed no evidence of interaction between mistletoe and immune checkpoint inhibitors.
No interaction found.
Lymphoma and Leukemia
Not clear this should be considered an adverse reaction but is an important consideration in mistletoe use.
Bench trial showing positive results.
Case report. Paywall.
2 patients treated with high dose mistletoe alone with total regression of cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma.
12 year old girl with remission after mistletoe.
Case report. Article not available.
Investigation of the proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis, and cell cycle phases in several human multiple myeloma cell lines. Comparison of Viscum album QuFrF extract with vincristine in an in vitro model.
Bench test. Mistletoe more effective than conventional chemotherapy.
Intratumoral Mistletoe Therapy
“The frequency of ADRs to IT mistletoe injections was 3 times and 5 times higher than has previously been found for subcutaneous and intravenous applications of mistletoe, respectively. Nearly all ADRs were mild to moderate however, and no serious ADRs occurred. Furthermore, it is possible that immune-related ADRs such as pyrexia and local inflammatory reactions might be critical for tumor response.”
Mouse model demonstrating key concepts of intratumoral mistletoe injection.
Case report. Abstract only.
Phase II study. Patients given mistletoe intra-abdominally needed less frequent removal of fluid than prior. No adverse events.
Case report of woman who received intra-abdominal mistletoe and improvement of malignant ascites.
High Dose Mistletoe
Adverse effects were mild and anticipated.
Generally safe with fevers reaching >38.5C
Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. No serious ADR’s occurred.
Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Rare tumor with poor prognosis held in check with mistletoe.
Discusses a large German hospital that has implemented integrative concepts including use of mistletoe in cancer treatment.
Chemo plus mistletoe is better.
“Six of 28 patients in one of the VaL groups and eight of 29 patients in the control group developed relapse or metastasis within 5 years. Subgroup analysis for hormone- and radiotherapy also showed no difference between groups. Additional VaL therapy during chemotherapy of early stage breast cancer patients appears not to influence the frequency of relapse or metastasis within 5 years.”
Note that mistletoe group only used for the duration of chemotherapy (most experts would continue subcutaneous injections for a longer sometimes pulsed, duration.) Also, the study may be underpowered to “see” a significant result- there were fewer recurrences in the mistletoe group but this was not statistically significant.
“the overall results point to a relevant stabilisation of Health Related Quality of Life during various chemotherapy regimes, possibly due to a reduction of chemotherapy caused side effects with an excellent tolerability of the mistletoe therapy.”
Consistent positive survival results and positive quality of life results.
“Iscador shows a clinically relevant effect on breast tumor progression as measured by overall survival as well as by the time to recurrences, lymphatic or distant metastases.”
Gene expression profiles of different breast cancer cells compared with their responsiveness to fermented mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador from oak (Quercus), pine (Pinus), white fir (Abies) and apple tree (Malus) in vitro.
Presurgical Iscador prevented suppression of immune system as compared to controls.
[Efficacy and safety of long-term complementary treatment with standardized European mistletoe extract (Viscum album L.) in addition to the conventional adjuvant oncologic therapy in patients with primary non-metastasized mammary carcinoma. Results of a multi-center, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland].
“The results of the present study confirmed the safety of the complementary therapy of patients with primary, non-metastatic mammary carcinoma with a standardized mistletoe extract and showed considerably fewer ADRs attributed to concurrent conventional therapy, as well as reduced disease and treatment-associated symptoms, and suggested a prolonged overall survival in the mistletoe extract group as compared with controls.”
Mistletoe protecting the immune system. Only abstract available.
Abstract only. Iscador significantly improves survival in breast cancer (stage 1+2 studied).
Paywall. No difference noted in treatment group.
Mistletoe improves quality of life significantly.
Increased quality of life demonstrated.
Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis of Survival and Psychosomatic Self-regulation from Published Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies for Long-term Therapy of Breast Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador).
Increased quality of life in Iscador group.
Positive findings for quality of life with mistletoe.
Paywall. Retention of quality of life with mistletoe.
Quality of life is improved in breast cancer patients by Standardised Mistletoe Extract PS76A2 during chemotherapy and follow-up: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre clinical trial.
Improved quality of life with mistletoe.
Mistletoe improved quality of life and lengthened relapse free intervals.
Paywall. Positive survival and quality of life with mistletoe in ovarian cancer.
Abstract only. Iscador improves survival in ovarian cancer.
Paywall. Positive impact on survival and quality of life.
Remission from abnormal cervical pathology CIN1 and CIN2 with mistletoe.
In Polish, abstract in English. CIN changes in cervix impacted favorably by Iscador.
Increased survival and quality of life with mistletoe.
Mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer that typically has poor survival even with optimal chemotherapy. This response is remarkable. (I have seen a case with 9+ year survival with mistletoe as well).
Patient used mistletoe treatment alone and had complete remission.
Low dose iscador associated with complete remission 14+ year survival of metastatic melanoma patient.
Safety and efficacy of the long-term adjuvant treatment of primary intermediate- to high-risk malignant melanoma (UICC/AJCC stage II and III) with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract. Results from a multicenter, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland.
“The long-term FME treatment in patients with primary intermediate to high-risk MM appears safe. Tumor enhancement was not observed. When compared with an untreated parallel control group from the same cohort, the results of the FME treatment suggested a significant survival benefit in primary stage II-III MM patients.”
Final results of the EORTC 18871/DKG 80-1 randomised phase III trial. rIFN-alpha2b versus rIFN-gamma versus ISCADOR M versus observation after surgery in melanoma patients with either high-risk primary (thickness >3 mm) or regional lymph node metastasis.
Iscador M compared to 2 other investigational drugs, compared to control. No difference in recurrence or survival noted. Paywall.
Mistletoe induces apoptosis and works synergistically with chemotherapy in this effect in osteosarcoma.
Pay wall. Description of 6 patients with response to VAE therapy.
High-dose Viscum album treatment may have interrupted frequently recurring tumors in individual patients with recurrent bladder cancer.
Bench Trial with Iscucin
Pilot study showing similar efficacy to adjuvant BCG.
No effect seen in treatment group.
Renal Cell Carcinoma
A phase II trial with iscador. No difference noted in treatment groups. All patients enrolled as stage 4. Nonrandomized study.
Iscador helped reduce cancer related fatigue
Isorel (a mistletoe extract) beneficial for advanced colorectal cancer.
Systematic evaluation of the clinical effects of supportive mistletoe treatment within chemo- and/or radiotherapy protocols and long-term mistletoe application in nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma: multicenter, controlled, observational cohort study.
Positive survival effects noted.
No effect seen in tumor progression in resistant stage 4 colon cancer.
Positive impact on quality of life in patients using mistletoe. Concluded to be safe.
Abnoba Fraxini showed survival benefit in HCC.
Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma
Increased survival in mistletoe group.
“Median OS (overall survival) was 4.8 for VaL (Mistletoe) and 2.7 months for control patients (prognosis-adjusted hazard ratio, HR=0.49; p<0.0001). Within the ‘good’ prognosis subgroup, median OS was 6.6 versus 3.2 months (HR=0.43; p<0.0001), within the ‘poor’ prognosis subgroup, it was 3.4 versus 2.0 months respectively (HR=0.55; p=0.0031). No VaL-related adverse events were observed.”
Phase III randomized trial. Positive findings. Note that mistletoe was only given subcutaneously in this trial.
Findings of improved quality of life and survival with mistletoe.
Mistletoe improves quality of life in pancreatic cancer.
Head and Neck
Bench trial. Positive findings.
“Adverse effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the microcirculation and the immune system were decreased and reconstitution processes were accelerated by complementary administration of a standardized mistletoe extract (Iscador).”
Case report with discussion. Paywall.
Paywall. No difference seen in quality of life.
No difference noted in treatment group. Paywall.
Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Abreu, P., R. Sánchez, T. Mut, D. Balaguer, I. Latorre, and H. Rodríguez. “Homeopathic Mistletoe Adverse Reaction Mimics Nodal Involvement in 18F-FDG PET/CT Performed for Evaluation of Response to Chemotherapy in Lymphoma.” Revista Espanola De Medicina Nuclear E Imagen Molecular 36, no. 2 (April 2017): 110–12. https://doi.org/10/gd847p. Augustin, Matthias, Paul R. Bock, Jürgen Hanisch, Marita Karasmann, and Berthold Schneider. “Safety and Efficacy of the Long-Term Adjuvant Treatment of Primary Intermediate- to High-Risk Malignant Melanoma (UICC/AJCC Stage II and III) with a Standardized Fermented European Mistletoe (Viscum Album L.) Extract. Results from a Multicenter, Comparative, Epidemiological Cohort Study in Germany and Switzerland.” Arzneimittel-Forschung 55, no. 1 (2005): 38–49. https://doi.org/10/gd87nj. Bar-Sela, Gil, Hadassah Goldberg, Dan Beck, Amnon Amit, and Abraham Kuten. “Reducing Malignant Ascites Accumulation by Repeated Intraperitoneal Administrations of a Viscum Album Extract.” Anticancer Research 26, no. 1B (February 2006): 709–13. Bar-Sela, Gil, and Nissim Haim. “Abnoba-Viscum (Mistletoe Extract) in Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma Resistant to 5-Fluorouracil and Leucovorin-Based Chemotherapy.” Medical Oncology (Northwood, London, England) 21, no. 3 (2004): 251–54. https://doi.org/10/cdkc2p. Bar-Sela, Gil, Mira Wollner, Liat Hammer, Abed Agbarya, Elizabeth Dudnik, and Nissim Haim. “Mistletoe as Complementary Treatment in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Carboplatin-Based Combinations: A Randomised Phase II Study.” European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 49, no. 5 (March 2013): 1058–64. https://doi.org/10/f2h5wr. Bauer, Carolyn, Tilmann Oppel, Franziska Ruëff, and Bernhard Przybilla. “Anaphylaxis to Viscotoxins of Mistletoe (Viscum Album) Extracts.” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology: Official Publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 94, no. 1 (January 2005): 86–89. https://doi.org/10/bv4pkq. Ben-Arye, Eran, Ofer Lavie, Noah Samuels, Hazem Khamaisie, Elad Schiff, Orit Gressel Raz, and Jamal Mahajna. “Safety of Herbal Medicine Use during Chemotherapy in Patients with Ovarian Cancer: A ‘Bedside-to-Bench’ Approach.” Medical Oncology (Northwood, London, England) 34, no. 4 (April 2017): 54. https://doi.org/10/gd8468. Beuth, J., H. L. Ko, H. Schneider, S. Tawadros, H. U. Kasper, H. Zimst, and J. M. Schierholz. “Intratumoral Application of Standardized Mistletoe Extracts down Regulates Tumor Weight via Decreased Cell Proliferation, Increased Apoptosis and Necrosis in a Murine Model.” Anticancer Research 26, no. 6B (December 2006): 4451–56. Beuth, J., B. Schneider, and J. M. Schierholz. “Impact of Complementary Treatment of Breast Cancer Patients with Standardized Mistletoe Extract during Aftercare: A Controlled Multicenter Comparative Epidemiological Cohort Study.” Anticancer Research 28, no. 1B (February 2008): 523–27. Bock, Paul R., Walter E. Friedel, Jürgen Hanisch, Marita Karasmann, and Berthold Schneider. “[Efficacy and safety of long-term complementary treatment with standardized European mistletoe extract (Viscum album L.) in addition to the conventional adjuvant oncologic therapy in patients with primary non-metastasized mammary carcinoma. Results of a multi-center, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland].” Arzneimittel-Forschung 54, no. 8 (2004): 456–66. https://doi.org/10/gd87nk. Bock, Paul R., Jürgen Hanisch, Harald Matthes, and Kurt S. Zänker. “Targeting Inflammation in Cancer-Related-Fatigue: A Rationale for Mistletoe Therapy as Supportive Care in Colorectal Cancer Patients.” Inflammation & Allergy Drug Targets 13, no. 2 (2014): 105–11. Bonamin, Leoni Villano, Aloisio Cunha de Carvalho, and Silvia Waisse. “Viscum Album (L.) in Experimental Animal Tumors: A Meta-Analysis.” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine 13, no. 6 (June 2017): 2723–40. https://doi.org/10/gd8467. Bradley, G. W., and A. Clover. “Apparent Response of Small Cell Lung Cancer to an Extract of Mistletoe and Homoeopathic Treatment.” Thorax 44, no. 12 (December 1989): 1047–48. Braedel-Ruoff, Sibylla. “Immunomodulatory Effects of Viscum Album Extracts on Natural Killer Cells: Review of Clinical Trials.” Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006) 17, no. 2 (April 2010): 63–73. https://doi.org/10/c84gzc. Büssing, Arndt. “Immune Modulation Using Mistletoe (Viscum Album L.) Extracts Iscador.” Arzneimittel-Forschung 56, no. 6A (June 2006): 508–15. https://doi.org/10/gd87mh. Büssing, Arndt, Mechtild Bischof, Wolfgang Hatzmann, Felix Bartsch, Danyl Soto-Vera, Eva-Maria Fronk, Martin Gmeindl, and Gerburg M. Stein. “Prevention of Surgery-Induced Suppression of Granulocyte Function by Intravenous Application of a Fermented Extract from Viscum Album L. in Breast Cancer Patients.” Anticancer Research 25, no. 6C (December 2005): 4753–57. Büssing, Arndt, Christa Raak, and Thomas Ostermann. “Quality of Life and Related Dimensions in Cancer Patients Treated with Mistletoe Extract (Iscador): A Meta-Analysis.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM 2012 (2012): 219402. https://doi.org/10/cmbwzm. Cazacu, Mircea, Traian Oniu, Cornel Lungoci, Anca Mihailov, Ana Cipak, Rainer Klinger, Thomas Weiss, and Neven Zarkovic. “The Influence of Isorel on the Advanced Colorectal Cancer.” Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 18, no. 1 (February 2003): 27–34. https://doi.org/10/btc5p5. Cho, Jeong Su, Kook Joo Na, Yongjik Lee, Yeong Dae Kim, Hyo Yeong Ahn, Chang Ryul Park, and Young Chul Kim. “Chemical Pleurodesis Using Mistletoe Extraction (ABNOVAviscum(®) Injection) for Malignant Pleural Effusion.” Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery: Official Journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia 22, no. 1 (2016): 20–26. https://doi.org/10/f8swjk. Cho, Suk Ju, Su Wan Kim, and Jee Won Chang. “Acute Pneumonitis Consequent on Pleurodesis with Viscum Album Extract: Severe Chest Images but Benign Clinical Course.” Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 9, no. 1 (2014): 61. https://doi.org/10/gd847w. Delebinski, Catharina I., Monika Twardziok, Susann Kleinsimon, Florian Hoff, Katharina Mulsow, Jana Rolff, Sebastian Jäger, Angelika Eggert, and Georg Seifert. “A Natural Combination Extract of Viscum Album L. Containing Both Triterpene Acids and Lectins Is Highly Effective against AML In Vivo.” PloS One 10, no. 8 (2015): e0133892. https://doi.org/10/f72zg5. Eggenschwiler, Jenny, Andrea Patrignani, Ulrich Wagner, Hubert Rehrauer, Ralph Schlapbach, Lukas Rist, Mac H. Ramos, and Angelika Viviani. “Gene Expression Profiles of Different Breast Cancer Cells Compared with Their Responsiveness to Fermented Mistletoe (Viscum Album L.) Extracts Iscador from Oak (Quercus), Pine (Pinus), White Fir (Abies) and Apple Tree (Malus) in Vitro.” Arzneimittel-Forschung 56, no. 6A (June 2006): 483–96. https://doi.org/10/gd87mk. Eisenbraun, J., R. Scheer, M. Kröz, F. Schad, and R. Huber. “Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients during Chemotherapy and Concurrent Therapy with a Mistletoe Extract.” Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology 18, no. 2–3 (January 15, 2011): 151–57. https://doi.org/10/dpf96c. Elsässer-Beile, Ursula, Christian Leiber, Philipp Wolf, Martin Lucht, Ulrich Mengs, and Ulrich Wetterauer. “Adjuvant Intravesical Treatment of Superficial Bladder Cancer with a Standardized Mistletoe Extract.” The Journal of Urology 174, no. 1 (July 2005): 76–79. https://doi.org/10/d2n46v. Ernst, Eduard, Katja Schmidt, and Miriam Katharina Steuer-Vogt. “Mistletoe for Cancer? A Systematic Review of Randomised Clinical Trials.” International Journal of Cancer 107, no. 2 (November 1, 2003): 262–67. https://doi.org/10/d6prcn. Evans, Maggie, Susan Bryant, Alyson L. Huntley, and Gene Feder. “Cancer Patients’ Experiences of Using Mistletoe (Viscum Album): A Qualitative Systematic Review and Synthesis.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.) 22, no. 2 (February 2016): 134–44. https://doi.org/10/f8kzgb. Freudlsperger, Christian, Anka Dahl, Juergen Hoffmann, Siegmar Reinert, and Udo Schumacher. “Mistletoe Lectin-I Augments Antiproliferative Effects of the PPARgamma Agonist Rosiglitazone on Human Malignant Melanoma Cells.” Phytotherapy Research: PTR 24, no. 9 (September 2010): 1354–58. https://doi.org/10/dbqnmt. Friedel, Walter E., Harald Matthes, Paul R. Bock, and Kurt S. Zänker. “Systematic Evaluation of the Clinical Effects of Supportive Mistletoe Treatment within Chemo- and/or Radiotherapy Protocols and Long-Term Mistletoe Application in Nonmetastatic Colorectal Carcinoma: Multicenter, Controlled, Observational Cohort Study.” Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology 7, no. 4 (2009): 137–45. Fritz, Peter, Jürgen Dippon, Simon Müller, Sven Goletz, Christian Trautmann, Xenophon Pappas, German Ott, et al. “Is Mistletoe Treatment Beneficial in Invasive Breast Cancer? A New Approach to an Unresolved Problem.” Anticancer Research 38, no. 3 (2018): 1585–93. https://doi.org/10/gc97cg. Gaafar, Rabab, Abdel Rahman M. Abdel Rahman, Fatma Aboulkasem, and Ahmed El Bastawisy. “Mistletoe Preparation (Viscum Fraxini-2) as Palliative Treatment for Malignant Pleural Effusion: A Feasibility Study with Comparison to Bleomycin.” Ecancermedicalscience 8 (2014): 424. https://doi.org/10/gcpcn3. Goebell, Peter J., Thomas Otto, Julia Suhr, and Herbert Rübben. “Evaluation of an Unconventional Treatment Modality with Mistletoe Lectin to Prevent Recurrence of Superficial Bladder Cancer: A Randomized Phase II Trial.” The Journal of Urology 168, no. 1 (July 2002): 72–75. Grossarth-Maticek, R., and Renatus Ziegler. “Randomised and Non-Randomised Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies in Matched-Pair Design for the Long-Term Therapy of Breast Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador): A Re-Analysis.” European Journal of Medical Research 11, no. 11 (November 30, 2006): 485–95. ———. “Randomized and Non-Randomized Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies in Matched Pair Design for the Long-Term Therapy of Corpus Uteri Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador).” European Journal of Medical Research 13, no. 3 (March 31, 2008): 107–20. Grossarth-Maticek, Ronald, and Renatus Ziegler. “Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies on Long-Term Therapy of Breast Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador).” Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006) 13, no. 5 (October 2006): 285–92. https://doi.org/10/ddjfsd. ———. “Prospective Controlled Cohort Studies on Long-Term Therapy of Cervical Cancer Patients with a Mistletoe Preparation (Iscador).” Forschende Komplementarmedizin (2006) 14, no. 3 (June 2007): 140–47. https://doi.org/10/df2wfh. Gutsch, Johannes, Paul G. Werthmann, Andreas Rosenwald, and Gunver S. Kienle. “Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival of a Patient with a Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Under Viscum Album Extracts After Resistance to R-CHOP: A Case Report.” Anticancer Research 38, no. 9 (September 2018): 5363–69. https://doi.org/10/gd846z. Hassauer, W., J. Gutsch, and R. 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